In April 1999, when we re-surveyed Beiram, snow filled the depression on the mound where the Mongols had removed more stones to construct the oovo, the mound of stones that serves as a cultic locale to offer ritual items (background, right). Increased vehicle traffic through the region resulting of “market economy” has encouraged the further development of the oovo. According to a local Mongol herder who was an official at the time, before the Russian revolution Beiram was a meeting point each autumn for Russians and Mongols to exchange sheep, horses, camels, and yak that might have strayed across the border (the Russia border is about 20 kilometers [as a crow flies] on the horizon.) Our informant said that as late as 1934, the oovo at Beiram did not exist.